Beans have many benefits for our health. They grow in green pods, each pod contains 4-6 seeds. The shape of the seeds looks like a half-moon, and their size and colour vary from species to species.
Beans are a good source of protein and fibre. They contain vitamin B1, high thiamine content and folic acid, which are very healthy during pregnancy. In addition, legumes contain manganese, magnesium, iron and phosphorus.
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PREPARATION FOR PLANTING
This operation includes pruning and weed removal two weeks before planting. As long as the land permits, you can plough the land.
The purpose of this approach is to loosen the soil to achieve greater water filtration, retain more moisture for the growth of the crop, facilitate seed and germination, and eliminate existing weeds.
Bean crops can be grown perfectly in very hot places in the sun or slightly shaded environments.
Beans can also be planted in containers with a minimum depth of 30 cm so that their roots can develop better.
Be sure to prepare a container or cultivation bed before planting. It should be noted that beans can grow in different types of soil, but the soil must have good drainage.
These very small insects, called whiteflies, spread diseases to plants.
When they fly up, they look like white powder.
Weevil is another pest that feeds on pods and stored seeds. To prevent this plague from ending with our seeds, we can store the seeds in a jar and fill them with flour. This will prevent the oxygen in the bottle and the weevil from drowning.
Some common diseases in beans are rust ( Uromyces phaseoli ), rot ( Rhizoctonia solani ), and charcoal rot ( Macrophominia phaseolina ).
The disease can also be prevented by having good drainage, clearing up weeds and crop rotation.
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HARVESTING THE BEANS
The pods are picked when they reach maturity and piled up after they are completely dry.
After stacking, cover with transparent plastic, which can accelerate the sun drying and protect the harvest from rain.
There should be space between the floor and the plastic for ventilation.
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It is then threshed by hand or mechanically, usually by using a grasshopper with a corresponding dehulling machine.
To harvest the beans, we must wait for the plant to finish its development and the pods have between 70-90% of the dry pod.
Beans are harvested in the pod.
If we have a lot of plants, we can harvest whole plants when they are 50% dry.
Cut the plants from the base of the stem and put them in a paper bag or sack. Hang the plant upside down in a cool, dry place to complete drying.
Pods are now completely dry, it is easy to separate the seeds from the pods. In a bucket, put all the dried pods in and crush them with heavy objects.
The goal is to break the pods so that the seeds come out and enter the bottom of the container.
Then take out the dried pods and plant fragments.
We can store the seeds in glass jars to avoid pests and diseases, and store them in a cool and dry place. The beans can be stored for several months and are in good condition for up to 7 months.